Saturday, December 7, 2019
Albania has population of 3. 3 million (www. albania. com). Approximly 312. 0 of these people live in Tirana, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital and largest city. (Background). Three major religions are practiced in Albania. Seventy percent of the people are Muslim; twenty percent are Orthodox; and ten percent are Catholic. (Background). Albania is the official state language (Tosk is the official dialect). (Background). Nine years of education are required by law, but large majorities of the people finish high school. After they complete high school, most of the teenagers want to go to Europe or the United State to complete their higher education to have a better future. Majorities of the people are self-employed. More than eighty percent of the population is white, and less then twenty percent is gypsy. The current form of government in Albania is a republican. The head of the State is President Rexhep Mejdani and Pandeli Majko is the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s premier minister. We will write a custom essay sample on A New Tourist Destination or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page (The world almanac and book of facts 2000). At present, the majority of the government people are from the socialist party. Government has had many challenges since the breakup of the Soviet Union. Fighting is ongoing in Kosovo, and refugies continue to flee Albania where they have difficulty finding shelter and employment, work, food etc. During the Kosovo war many of these people fled to Albania. In spite of their poverty the Albanians opened their doors to the Kosovo people because the Albanian government was not able to support these refuges financially. The economy of Albania today is very poor. If before 1990 Albania exported oil, coal, chromium, copper, iron, nickel, today there is not export of these goods because of no production. (Background). The unemployment is very high, what Albania needs today is the investment. The problem is that the foreign investors are reluctant to invest because the unstable situation in Albania. Albania is a country about which the people in United State are learning more and more. The political changes due to the fan of the communist governments in Eastern Europe and Russian have given Albania many challenges. The country is trying hard to put in place a stable and honest government which can help to build a strong economy. AlbaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s advantages location on the Adriatic and Ionia seas, its natural resources, and its hard-working people will help the country to develop into an important power in Europe. As the Economy grows and the political situation becomes less violated more Americans will visit, and invest money
Friday, November 29, 2019
Introduction There are several policies that have been critical to the advancement of a favorable trading environment in the United States. A lot of things surround the policy right from its formulation to its implementation, thereby affecting how the policy plays out in meeting its intended objectives.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Federal Trade Commission Act specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to understand the nature of policy and its its implications on the economy, one must be able to trace the policy goals, which are reflected in the activities that are undertaken as part of the implementation of the policy. This is what is referred to as public policy analysis. As one of the leading countries in international commerce, the regulation of the trading environment in the USA was critical. Therefore, it is worthwhile to say that the country needs to ensure that there is a stable internal b usiness environment, which paves way for external competitiveness in trade. One of the areas that have been given attention for a long time is the regulation of trade in the United States. This has been done through the development and enforcement of trade policies that have governed commerce till the contemporary times. The Federal Trade Commission Act is considered to be one of the critical legislations that have aided to regulate commerce in the United States. As a policy, the Federal Trade Commission Act has undergone several amendments in the course of its applicability. The changes that have been made to the Act have been geared towards making it efficient to capture the emerging needs and demands in trade in the United States and beyond. This paper explores the Federal Trade Commission Act of the United States. The paper carries out an analytical evaluation of the act in order to develop a bigger picture of the policy and how it has been relevant in the country. The paper car ries both a description and analysis of the Act. The paper begins by bringing out the history of the Act. This is followed by an analysis and evaluation of the key areas of the Act. History of the Act The Federal Trade Commission Act can be traced back to the early years of the 20th century. These are the times when the United States, under the leadership of the then President Woodrow Wilson, was working hard to gain a strong economic footing. The Act was formulated in the year 1914, and through amendments it has remained vital in the country. The Act became a law in the same year in which it was formulated. The Act spearheaded the establishment of the Federal Trade Commission. Prior to the establishment of this body, there was a lot of fragmentation of trading activities that denoted the absence of order, which is vital for molding business for the benefit of the country.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Federal Trade Commission was meant to be a body to help in moderating the trading environment in the country. The issue trusts in the US economy had resulted in a lot of unethical practices, particularly the large business corporations in the United States. Therefore, a political intervention was highly desired to help put a hold to the issue of trusts in order to promote a fair trading environment in the country. Under the authority of the United States Congress, the commission was to help issue orders to make the large companies to desist from advancing business practices that were deemed unfair to other business companies in the United States. Also, the Act was meant to shield consumers from exploitation by the big companies. The exploitation emanated from the engagement of the companies in deceptive activities (Herbert, 2010, p. 871). It is critical to observe that the Federal Trade Commission Act has resulted in the formulation of oth er business driven statutes in order to enforce a number of business regulations. The statutes are formulated by the United States Congress and grouped under the Code of Federal Regulations. This legislation was developed basing on the Sheraman Act. The Sherman Act is one of the trade regulation policies of the United States that restricted the anticompetitive conduct by business corporations in the United States. As of today, it has been observed that the FTC Act has given FTC powers to enforce numerous consumer protection and antitrust laws in the United States. The FTC is still undergoing changes as its operations broaden in order to capture the issues that emerge in the contemporary market. Prescription of the Act Understanding the FTC Act According to Northrup (2003, p. 179), the operation of the FTC Act is strongly founded in the operations of the Federal Trade Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is headed by a chairperson and commissioners. Both the commissioners and the chairperson of the FTC are appointed by the US president with the approval of the US Senate. The commission is comprised of five commissioners. The observation that the FTC Act was to eliminate unfair competition implies that it encompassed business torts, rather than the complete suppression of uncompetitive business practices in the US business environment. Business torts refer to the embrace of deceptive practices and conduct that adds a burden to the consumers (Blaisdell, 2008, p. 37). Large firms in the US were accused of adopting a tendency of monopolizing the business environment. It should also noted that the act did not only focus on the larger firms that tend to monopolize business, but also the smaller companies that advance their operations by way of riding freely on the investments that are made by other firms in the market. Under the Act, the FTC has powers to implement the provisions of the Clayton Act. The Clayton Act is one of the most comprehensive policies on reg ulation of competition.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Federal Trade Commission Act specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Clayton Act has provisions within it, which bars the development of anticompetitive agreements, price discrimination, mergers, and exclusive dealings (Herbert, 2010, p. 872). In its operation, as prescribed by the Act, the FTC is bestowed with the mandate of scrutinizing the business corporations in the United States, in order to ensure that they comply with the antitrust laws. The commission also intervenes in cases where business activities show signs of affecting consumers (Northrup, 2003, p. 178). Blaisdell (2008, p. 259) ascertained that the FTC has the explicit statutory powers to put the antitrust provision into practice. However, these powers are founded on the Sherman Act. Therefore, the importance of integrating the diverse business Acts is explicated here, where the li mitations of a given company to enforce certain laws is drawn away by the provisions in a different Act. The issue of deception features in all kinds of business practices, like marketing and advertisement. The enforcement of the FTC Act has resulted in a substantial number of litigations with several corporations. These cases come out of the pressures that are put on companies by the virtue of the enforcement of the laws on unfair competition and deceptive business practices. It should be noted that the Act has been prone to several amendments, out of the need to make it workable and the need to eliminate certain components that make it inefficient. The elaboration of terms has also been a critical factor in the changes that have been made to the Act. The policy goal of the act has been to promote ethical practices in the market by curtailing false advertisements by business firms and the fixing of exploitative prices on goods and services (Northrup, 2003, p. 179). The FTC Act and market failure There have been a lot of issues surrounding the enforcement of the FTC Act. Most of the issues have been noted by the Commission. They revolve around the question of elimination deception and policy advancement on the elimination of deceptive practices by firms. The issue of liberal markets further complicates the applicability of the anticompetitive provisions in the Act. The FTC has noted that there is a strong and integrated link between advertising and the establishment of free markets. Therefore, the mere fact that the act advances a policy that restricts the nature of advertising by firms through the anti-deception provision is argued to be against the principle of market liberalization. Most marketing theories opine that consumers have a right to get any information concerning the goods or services that are offered by any given company in the market. The reason behind this argument is that the more information that is received by customers concerning a give pro duct or a service, the more they are bound to make informed choices of products in the market. The purchasing choices, which are made by the consumers, are often bound to satisfy their needs.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, several issues surround the process of advertising, which is the reason why the FTC Act is critical in the prevention of market failure. Advertising impacts negatively on market performance when firms utilize it to pass fraudulent or deceptive messages that induce reasonable customers to peg their purchasing choices on the fraudulent messages (Azcuenaga, 1997, p. 1). The operation of the free market is a complex affair, and so is the need for policies to help instilling controls to the practices within the market to encourage the sustenance of the market. The United States embraces a free market system. However, this does not imply the lack of control in marketing procedures and practices. The controls are critical in that they help in the protection of both the consumers and business firms from any misdeeds in market operations. One of the key elements in free market operation is the ability of the market to generate and subsequently process the large volumes of informatio n, which is featured in the operations of the modern market. The large volumes of information in the modern market center on output and costs of production, the interconnection between producers and suppliers and the incomes and tastes of consumers in the market. The ability of any market to promote the effective discharge and utilization of market information resonates from the availability of decentralized decision making channels. Decentralization of marketing practices is possible in the presence of polices that promote the synthesis of market information and the promotion of rational choices by the consumers. The FTC Act is one of the policy pillars behind the enhancement of fair practices in the liberalized US markets (Azcuenaga, 1997, p. 1). Implementation of the FTC Act The Federal Trade Commerce Act was implemented right from the time it was developed. The agency that has been charged with the responsibility of implementing the Act is the Federal Trade Commission. With seve ral provisions, the implementation of the provisions in the Act has been taking place on a continuous basis. Whenever there is an itchy issue, the need for the amendment of the provisions in the Act is raised. It is vital to observe that the implementation of the Act is monitored by the US Senate, which is one of the bodies that scrutinizes and vets the proposed amendments to the Act. Several issues have emerged in the course of the enforcement of the Act. Most of these issues come from the new developments in the business realm, which requires the Federal Trade Commission to revisit the provisions in the Act. This forces the commission to induce changes and even in some cases induce a number of Caps in the main Act. An example is the CAN-SPAM Act (Definitions and implementation under the CAN-SPAM Act, 2008, p. 1). Impact of FTC Act on business and society The impacts of any given policy are pegged on the goals and objectives of the policy. The Federal Trade Commission Act is one of the most vocal trade policies in the United States since most of its goals have been met. It can, therefore, be said that the FTC Act has had a great impact in as far as the support of a fair trading environment that is considerate of the consumer is concerned. One of the key goals of the FTC Act has been to promote a fair trustworthy trading environment. Through the implementation of Section 5, which largely touches on the regulatory mechanisms of the banking corporations in the United States, the amount of trust in the banking institutions in the United States has risen. It is important to highlight the relevance of this development to the economy of the United States. The confidence in the banking institutions plays the role of attracting investment in the economy, thereby promoting economic growth and development. The confidence only comes when citizens, as well as other corporations are assured of favorable terms of interests that are well rationalized to reflect the state of the economy. The FTC, under the policy of fair competition and the protection of consumers, ensures that the rates of interests that are set by banking institutions are reached by factoring in all the possible risks in the economy. An example that comes up here is the manner in which the FTC has captured the changing trends in consumer trends amidst the emergence of the social media as one of the tools of marketing (Peter, 2011, p. 165). Scott (1997, p. 963) observed that the other profound impact of the policy is that it has aided in creating an environment where the consumers are highly enlightened on their rights in the market. Consumer protection has been one of the main roosts of the policy. The approach that is utilized by the Federal Trade Commission makes the policy goals more clear to the consumers. It has been noted that the Commission takes an active approach, which applauds the issues within the policy to the consumers, as well as business corporations in the United Stat es. Even with the changes in the international market operations, consumers in the United States are assured of protection from exploitation. Policy Analysis As mentioned earlier, the main goal of the Federal Trade Commission Act has been to promote a fair competitive business environment in the United States. One main question that ought to be posed here is whether there is a fairly competitive business environment in the United States. This is the basis on which the workability of the FTC Act can be determined. Just like other trading policies, it can be argued that the FTC Act has remained to be critical in the regulation of the US markets, having prevailed for about one hundred years. Its long existence can be taken as an indicator of the fulfillment of the goals that guided its development, proving its workability. It should be noted that the Act has existed from the year 1914 to date. The analysis of the US markets since that time up to today denotes great changes to the US ma rkets. Therefore, the implication is that the Act has spearheaded the growth of consumer awareness and the subsequent enhancement of ethical standards in market practices, which has resulted in fair competition in the market. Nonetheless, it is vital to note that the FTC has often been subjected to criticisms by business corporations, which accuse the Commission for narrowing their competitive space (Northrup, 2003, p, 180). Strengths and Weaknesses of the The Trade Commission Act One of the vital areas of the policy has been the development of policies that govern the competitive operation of different business institutions in the US. Among these institutions are banks. The main question is whether the regulation of competitive practices in the US banking sector has been attained. The competitive environment in the banking sector is often measured by the amount of trust of the customers in the services and information that is offered by the banks. Under Section 5 of the FTC Act, it is apparent that the Federal Trade Commission developed standards that are used for guiding the activities of banks, thereby encouraging the suppression of deceptive practices by banks. The policy on banking, as brought about in the FTC Act, has forced banks to disclose their activities; for instance the parameters that are utilized in the calculation of interests. This is referred as compliance risk evaluation, where the release of all products and services of the banks are subjected to the policy to ensure that they are not deceptive to the consumers (Salinger, 2005, p. 312). It can be said with certainty that the level confidence of customers in the US banking sector has been highly promoted by the virtue of the functioning of the FTC. This is considered to be one of the strengths of the FTC Act. The FTC has been given powers to issue Ã¢â¬Ëcease-and-desistÃ¢â¬â¢ orders on any institution that fails to comply with the regulations on deception and fair competition. The Federal Trade Commission has also been given powers to implement policies and regulations that feature in a substantial number of other legislations (Salinger, 2005, p. 312). However, the weakness of the policy can be traced in the recent economic developments, where the state gives preference to a number of business organizations. In such a situation, the government backs the operations of a number of economic institutions that are considered to be critical in the economy. An example that can be given here is the application of the Ã¢â¬Ëtoo big to failÃ¢â¬â¢ slogan amidst the impacts of the recent global economic recession. Under such circumstances, the regulatory power of the Act was demeaned (Devlin, 2011, p. 560). One of the main strengths of policies is the nature of their expansiveness, which serves as a determination of the amount of influence that it has on the society. There are arguments that the FTC functions can be equated to a social movement. The Commission termed merges as sources of problems in business and by extension a problem in the society. Having taken a vibrant approach in meeting the goals that it was intended to meet, it is easy for the activities of the Commission to be recognized. The Commission set a clear political agenda that was critical in the enforcement of the economic policy goals, which are being pursued (Luchansky Gerber, 1993, p. 217). Recommendations for future policy makers Implementation of policies is termed as a complex affair since it requires both the direct and indirect participation of different stakeholders, including the agencies that are targeted by the policy measures. As has been observed in the enforcement of the Federal Trade Commission Act, there is need to pay attention to certain critical areas within the cycle of implementing a policy. There is need to publicize a policy prior to its enforcement. This is a critical step since it helps in ensuring that all the contents of the policy are understood by the society. There was a problem of definition and use of the terms in the FTC Act, leading to a number of disputes. It is important to clearly define the terms and to simplify the specific statutes within a given policy in order to avoid misunderstandings, which often interferes with the effective enforcement of policy. The second point that should be given attention by policy makers concerns the broadening of the scope of the policy. This entails the opening of the scope of the policy so that it effectively links up and gets support from other policies. By doing so, the policy gets a stronger supportive ground, making it easy for policy enforcers to attain the goals of the policy in the society. The FTC Act was easily intertwined with other policies and even allowed to borrow from other policies in order to strengthen its enforcement ground. The other critical point in the development and enforcement of policy is that the policy makers are required to give room for making changes to t he policy. This is a desired step as it aids in the absorption of changes in the policy, which are critical to the consideration of the emerging factors in the environment in which the policy is being enforced. One of the observations made in the analysis of the FTC Act is that the Act has been subjected to numerous amendments in order to make it responsive to the emergent situations in the US market. References Azcuenaga, M. L. (1997). The role of advertising and advertising regulation in the free Market. Web. Blaisdell, T. C. (2008). The Federal Trade Commission: An experiment in the control of business. Clark, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. Definitions and implementation under the CAN-SPAM Act. (2008). Federal Information News Dispatch, Inc. Web. Devlin, A. (2011). Antitrust in an era of market failure. Harvard Journal of Law Public Policy, 33(2), 560-66. Herbert, H. (2010). The Federal Trade Commission and the Sherman Act. Florida Law Review, 62(4), 871. Luchansky, B., Gerber, J. (19 93). Constructing state autonomy: The Federal Trade Commission and the Celler-Kefauver Act. Sociological Perspectives, 36(3), 217-240. Northrup, C. C. (2003). The American economy: A historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Peter, T. (2011). Subverting new media for profit: how online social media Ã¢â¬Ëblack marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ violate section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. Hastings Science Technology Law Journal, 3(1), 165. Salinger, L. M. (2005). Encyclopedia of white-collar corporate crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Scott, C. (1997). Technology and competition come to telecommunications: Re-examining exemptions to the Federal Trade Commission Act. Administrative Law Review, 49(4), 963-970. This research paper on The Federal Trade Commission Act was written and submitted by user Branson Irwin to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Monday, November 25, 2019
The History of Medicine and Major Medical Inventions By defintion, medicine is the science of diagnosing, treating, or preventing disease and damage to the body or mind. A medical invention would be any instrument, machine, implant, or similar article that is useful in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease, for example: the thermometer, artificial heart, or a home pregnancy test. A Ambulance, Antibody Labeling Agent, Antiseptics, Apgar Score, Artificial Heart, Aspirin B Band-Aids, Blood Bank C Cardiac Related, Cataract Laserphaco Probe, Catheter, Catscan, Cloning, Contact Lenses, Cortisone, CPR D Dentistry, Diabetes Related, Dialysis Machine, Disposable Diapers E,F,G EKG Electrocardiography, Fetal Monitor, Genetics, Glasses (Eye) H Heart Lung Machine, Hepatitis Vaccine, HIV Protease Inhibitors I,K,L Insulin Process, Laser Eye Surgery, Liposuction M Microbiology Related, Microscope, MRI N,O Nystatin, Oral Contraceptives P,Q,R Pap Smear, Pasteurization, Penicillin, Pentothal, Polio Vaccine, Prosthetic, Prozac, Respirator S On June 5, 1984, the Safety Cap for Medicine Bottle (Child-Proof) was patented by Ronald Kay, Safety Pin, Smart Pill, Stethoscope, Syringe T Tagamet, Tampons, Tetracycline, Thermometer U,V, Ultrasound, Vaccination Needle, Viagra, Vitamin Production W,X,Y,Z Wheelchairs, X-Ray History of Medicine The History of MedicineA timeline of medical discoveries, inventions, advances, and events from prehistoric times to the present.History of MedicineA museum dedicated to collecting 20th century medical research instruments and computers at the National Institutes of Health.Ancient Medicine: From Homer to VesaliusAn on-line exhibition prepared in conjunction with the Colloquium Antiqua Medicina: Aspects in Ancient MedicineAndreas Vesalius De Humani Corporis Fabrica, 1543Modern medicine began in 1543 with the publication of the first complete textbook of human anatomy, De Humanis Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564).
Friday, November 22, 2019
Macro Economics - Essay Example owth structures of the variables could be assumed to be concluding that the economy in the period of study is displaying a stable situation in spite of the regular periods of booms and recessions that are a part of the regular business cycle which every economy has to pass through. Apart from that, if the long run pattern has to be considered, it is found that the economy exhibits a stable condition. The pattern of movement of the macroeconomic variables in an economy are the ones that exhibit the way that the economy is moving at present, i.e., the present situation of the economy. The patterns of behavior that they exhibit are very important to take decision about the future plans and policies that the economy should be subjected to. For example, if an economy is going through a high inflationary phase then, the appropriate monetary policy should be to reduce the flow of money in the economy and thus check the amount of liquidity in the country. However, before doing so, it is also necessary for the decision makers to find out the exact root of the disturbance, i.e., if the excess money supply in the economy and not a low rate of interest is the cause behind the rising inflation. Thus the importance of checking the behavior of the macroeconomic variables is of key importance for the nationals and particularly the decision makers of a nation. In this paper, attempt has been mad e to study the pattern of behavior of a number of relevant macroeconomic variables, viz., the inflation rate, the gross investment, the inventory investment, the nominal rate of exchange between Australian and US dollars, the real exchange rate, the real rate of interest, the private household consumption, the unemployment rate, productivity of labour, the supply of money in the economy and the current account balance. The movements of all these variables taken together indicate how stable the economic situation is and how stable it is going to be over the future years and thus provide a
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Should firearms be allowed in schools - Research Paper Example This makes it possible for intruders to access the premises and eventually mingle with unsuspecting students even in places such as dormitories, which are supposed to be out of bounds to strangers and other unauthorized persons (Newman, 2004). Furthermore, the ratio of security officers to civilians is never adequate to the extent of guaranteeing personal security to every individual unless every person undertakes to incur the expenditure of hiring personal body guards, who sometimes may turn out to be a bother as there is no way it would work if each and every student was accompanied by such guards to their lecture halls (Kopel, 2002). If this proposition is made legal, a methodology of ensuring compliance with the rules of handling guns would be brought forward in addition to constant evaluation on a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct to ensure that only those with sound and sober minds are allowed the privilege so as to avoid unethical behavior. If police officers, qualified civilians and o ther government security agencies can be entrusted to carrying guns, students can also be trained for example by introducing gun handling and usage lessons so as to make them responsible and aware of the consequences of not following laid down rules and regulations. The Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, shootings should be considered as a point of reference by those who may be misinformed on the vulnerability of college students. According to reports, an unknown armed person gained access to the institution on the 16th April 2007. Apparently, the said person embarked on a shooting spree whereby he killed two students in one of the dormitories and less than three hours later, he shot and killed 30 others in a classroom after which he committed suicide bringing the total number of deaths to 33, an occurrence that was termed as, Ã¢â¬Å"the deadliest shooting rampage in the American history (Hauser & OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, 2007).Ã¢â¬ If students were allowed to carry guns, there is a high probabi lity that the number of victims would have been lower based on the fact that they would have used their weapons to overpower and probably kill the shooter before he could cause more damage as he did. On the contrary, most of the students tried to escape through the windows while others slept on the floor as a cover as there was no way they could have challenged the shooter. College students especially females should be allowed to carry guns as a measure to control the ever increasing rate of sexual assault both by acquaintances and unknown assailers. Women are generally considered to be weak in terms of defense especially when challenged by fellow men, who are considered to be more masculine thereby energetic. According to 2008 reports, more than 3000 college students are allegedly sexually assaulted within the institutions on yearly basis. Indeed, the same reports indicate that of all college men interviewed, 60% admitted that they would rape their fellow female friends under any c ircumstances deemed justifiable to them (Burnet, 2009). A woman needs protection and this has not been forthcoming in most of the colleges whereby culprits are allowed to go scot-free due to lack of substantial evidence whereas others are expelled from college only to return later
Monday, November 18, 2019
Creativity in the class - Essay Example Even before the students could fully settle down, the lecturer had already started speaking through the microphone. On the other hand, the students only concentrated on the lecturer after a warning that what he was speaking about could be part of an exam question (Boyer 82). Essentially, BoyerÃ¢â¬â¢s article talks about the inefficiencies in the education system especially at the University and College level. I totally agree with what he has pointed out in the article. As a matter of fact, it is the attitude of most of the professors towards their work that has contributed greatly to lowering studentÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in learning activities. To begin with, it is unfortunate that a good number of the university professors are not passionate about their work. They are only doing it for the sake of occupation and to earn a living. For example, Boyer notes a statement whereby a faculty member says that attaining a class attendance of .666 is a great success. Another member complained that students can hardly concentrate for a long span unless one sings or dances for them. This member clearly shows her disinterest in helping students. She arrogantly concludes that Ã¢â¬Å"she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t do thatÃ¢â¬ (Boyer 83). ... Nowadays, it is not a shock for a lecturer to enter a lecture room, open a textbook, read out what is in that textbook to the students, and finally walk out when the time elapses. As a student, one is left wondering if that is what learning actually involves. Another reason that has contributed to education inefficiency at the university level is lack of commitment from lecturers in engaging the students in active discussions. For example, Boyer notes a discouraging comment from one professor who said that he liked the passivity of the students. The professor asserted that, Ã¢â¬Å"with these students, not everything has to be provenÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ (Boyer 83)Ã¢â¬ This attitude ends up discouraging even the curious students. As already hinted above, it is unfortunate that some professors look forward to the end of the lessons rather than engaging students in active discussions. As soon as the lecture ends, it is almost impossible to track down the whereabouts of these professors as t hey do not have time for discussing with their students. As the end of it all is that the students end up losing interest in that subject. Also, it is unfortunate that the system of education puts much emphasis on grades rather than the knowledge acquired by the students. Whereas the lecturers may be quick to blame the students for their interest in only passing exams, the fact is that it is only those students who score good grades that end up being rewarded. In addition, the period for learning is normally little to allow a student to carry out extensive research. Most student who decide to read extensively end up performing poorly in the exams. This is because passing exams requires a strategy that Boyers refers to as Ã¢â¬Å"beating the systemÃ¢â¬ . All students desire to pass
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Desistance Rehabilitation And Reintegration When a criminal is able to stop the behavior that characterizes his or her criminal activities, the gradual process involved is what is termed as desistance. Apart from the fact that it has practical applications for probation workers with criminal offenders from the community, desistance also has a strong link and connection in the rehabilitation of a criminal. However, theories of desistance when compared to the theories of the onset of criminal behavior have been much neglected and underdeveloped in the history of criminology (Smith, 2007). It is therefore a good sign when studies of desistance increase drastically especially since the last twenty years; this has been particularly noticeable after the development of the life course theory that was done by Sampson and Laub. But as Piquero (2004:103) explains, continued research has been significantly affected by methodological and theoretical issues. Moreover, theorists in the field have not been able to come up with a universal de finition of desistance. Consequently this paper endeavors to create a workable definition of desistance and to furthermore give a preview of the updated main facts and theories of desistance. Understanding desistance Oxford Dictionary defines desistance as, to desist or to stop doing something; cease or abstain. Applying this definition to criminology is however a bit technical. The big question is usually about time, if a criminal is able to stop a certain criminal behavior for four weeks for example, is it correct to classify him or her as an accomplished case of desistance? What is the recommended time for one to be sure that he or she is free from the crime? If future behavior can best be predicted by looking at past behavior, and if recidivism and relapse are the rule rather than the exception, then how does a precise definition of desistance be formulated? (LeBel et al, 2004). Laub and Sampson (2001) as a matter of fact agree that a definition of desistance cannot be made, they support that the questions in a particular research best deduce the definition of desistance for the researcher (cited in Maruna, 2006). According to Shadd Maruna, for a habitual offender, any recognizable time spent without doing any crime is called primary desistance. However studies on recidivism and relapse cannot be complete without an outline of achieving long term desistance. Maruna goes on to therefore state that secondary desistance is when a criminal is able to change his identity and take an almost permanent direction to a life free of the initial crime that was a norm in his behavior. Studying secondary desistance is important as it seeks to understand how initial offenders can be able to keep a distance from their crimes. Desistance is therefore not the final result of the end of a crime; it is actually the process that is gradual and continuous till the end result of successful desistance. Sampson and Laub (2001) acknowledge that there is a huge difference between the stopping an offence and the continuous change to a crime free lifestyle. They mark that as compared to theories of offending, desistance theories have not yet been fully studied and explained, however desistance is now understood as the procedure necessary for acquiring a n accomplished state of non-offence. It is important that a criminal who wants to change must be willing to change his or her self identity and concept to be able to grasp the full context of change. Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) explain that on the contrary it is a common occurrence to find ex-offenders who have undergone desistance commit other acts of deviance, (cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003: 298). Desistance is therefore basically the ability of a former criminal to be able to completely withdraw from a crime and to maintain being in that state regardless of the challenges involved when trying to keep away. Some of these challenges are social stigma, return to criminogenic environments after release from prison, homelessness, addiction, and limited career and educational opportunities (Richards and Jones, 2004). Career criminals are those who have been criminal offenders for a considerably long period of time (Maruna, 2001). According to Laub and Sampson (2003), career criminals rather than small time offenders should be given more attention in researches on desistance. However another major problem in the study of desistance is the availability of completely successful offenders in desistance to the researchers in the field (Maruna, 2001; Burnett, 2004). Total desistance to many ex-offenders is quite a hard step as most of them usually end up going back to their initial criminal tendencies (Piquero, 2004). Addiction is a very significant factor that is more often overlooked yet its contribution to the whole process of desistance has a major impact on the ability of a criminal to completely change. It is therefore important to understand the connection between the two before arriving at a definition of desistance. From a number of researches it has been recognized that the link between addiction and criminal activities is actually very strong. A drug addict is therefore more likely to engage in crimes (Maruna, 2001). Moreover the cause of addiction and criminality are as a matter of fact very similar. Frisher and Beckett (2006:141) found that a large percentage of drug abusers are very active members in criminal gangs. Therefore, when defining desistance, it is necessary to note that the complete resistance of both criminal offending and drug abuse must be realized (Maruna, 2001). To achieve the purpose of this paper desistance can be described and defined as the initial process allowing quality desistance from drug abuse, criminality and other forms of deviance for an ex- criminal. Quality desistance in this case is the is the total termination of previous criminal behaviors together with other possible forms of deviance like drug abuse for at least ten years accompanied by a change in the identity of an individual. Desistance theories Ageing Age has been found to be a significant factor in criminology, as one grows older it is noted that their level of criminality greatly reduces. (Smith, 2007; Sampson and Laub, 2003; Gluecks, 1943; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003; Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003). In 2000 in the United Kingdom 19 year olds were found to have committed crimes fifty times more those which men of over fifty years had committed. According to research the total lifespan of a criminal is usually general considering factors like early deaths, imprisonment and when a criminal is evolving to avoid being detected (Maruna, 2006). In a research of 411 criminal males in London, Farrington (1990) found that as the criminals grew older, their crimes reduced greatly with time but this however depended on different types of crimes (cited in Smith, 2007). For example, burglary is at its highest at age 20 while fraud and drug abuse offences record their highest at the age of 25 all the way to 30 as burglary sets on a steady decline afterwards. Nevertheless for the persistent hardcore criminals into their 70s, there was a clear connection between their age and their crime rates according to studies by Laub and Sampson (2003, 2005, 2005b). Furthermore they realized that alcohol and drug offences were their highest in the mid- thirties as compared to other offences. They finally came to a conclusion that both age and the type of crimes affect the whole process of desistance as well. However there have been different explanations to the not clear age crime curve. Developmental criminologists have been able to link the ag e of an offender and the capability of total desistance to childhood related issues. (Mulver et al, 1988; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003; Nagin, 2005; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2005a) Offenders are therefore divided into two distinct groups, the adolescent and the persistent adult offenders. As a result it will be evident that in their late teens the adolescents will be able to grown out of crime and will be able to work on their social circles basically due to their education and good social integration skills. Academic failure, broken relationships and neuropsychological handicaps on the other hand doom the adult offender to a life of deviancy (Moffitt, 1993; 1994; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003). This theory therefore separates offenders into two distinct groups each with very unique characteristics determined by childhood factors, and only those who fall into the correct group have any hope of desistance. Sampson and Laub (2003; 2005a; 2005b) have strongly criticized this developmental approach to explaining desistance, and state that, there is no such thing as a fore-told life course persister (2003:179). They explain that desistance is achievable for ant type of offender no matter which group they are in whether adolescent or adults. According to them childhood fa ctors of offence do not determine desistance but instead help to explain the whole process of desistance. Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that offenders simply stop offending because of the natural aging of the individual (1995; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003). They point out that for any organism there is always a stage of discontinuity that applies to criminology and the study of desistance and its links with age. Therefore desistance is a natural process for any offender. Maruna (2001) however does not fully agree with this because according to him desistance, especially at the beginning, takes a huge amount of emotional, psychological and even physical effort and resources. Gluecks (1943) agrees with this too because he highlighted that desistance was the result of a process of maturational reform, meaning, an offender gradually grows out of crime (cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003). This maturation process usually starts after age 25 when a criminal is able to settle down as the crime rate reduces gradually. However this theory has similarly been criticized as it does not probe into th e meaning of age; instead it assumes that the process of aging itself is responsible for desistance (Maruna, 2001; Sampson and Laub, 2003). Acknowledging that age is a significant factor in desistance, Sampson and Laub (1992) state that maturational reform does not satisfactorily explore its significance in relation to social bonds and life turning points (cited in Maruna, 2001). Life Course Theory A significant study on 500 men up to the age of 32 was carried in the 1930s and 1940s by the Gluecks (1943; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003; 2005a; 2005b). Sampson and Laub later on in an impressive research followed up on 52 of these men and investigated on their criminal career to the age of 70. They found out that the causes of desistance and persistence are actually opposites, namely the development of social controls, structured routine activities and purposeful productive human agency (Sampson and Laub, 2003; 2005a; 2005b; 2006). Their finding indicated that job stability, military service and marriage were able to positively contribute to achieving desistance. These turning points were realized in the process of desistance whereby an offender seeks to start a new life by changing location or even starting a new job like entering the military for example. This however does not necessarily involve starting over, sometimes these offenders work to gain back and maintain their orig inal contacts like a job or a marriage in their quest to stop their criminal tendencies. Whichever path desistance takes these turning points often lead to: a knifing off of the past from the present opportunities for investment in new relationships that offer social support, growth, and new social networks forms of direct and indirect supervision and monitoring of behavior structured routines that center more on family life and less unstructured time with peers situations that provide an opportunity for identity transformation and that allow for the emergence of a new self or script These factors, they explain are true and are not affected by the type of marriage and the crime life of an individual , though informal, cohabiting and parenthood have also been linked to successful desistance (Sampson and Laub, 2006; Katz, 1999). Individuals with none of these social bonds are also more able to stop offending because, they have nothing to lose. Rebecca Katz (1999:13) indicates that, families of procreation may play a significant role in developing desistance since family influences self control and delinquency. Life course theory emphasizes on the strong influence of the social environment to offending explaining that absence of criminal peers reduces the chances of an individual ever engaging in offences and consequently attitudes and beliefs favorable to conformity will develop (Warr, 1998; cited in Sampson and Laub, 2003). Life Course Theory contradicts the link between developmental theories in criminal careers and desistance. It agrees that adulthood experience s are essential as well but to some point more significant in establishing the possible trajectory of desistance (2003). Offenders desist as a result of individual actions (choice) in conjunction with situational contexts and structural influences linked to key institutions that help sustain desistance. As such we argued that desistance is a process rather than an event, and that It must be continually renewed. This fundamental theme underscores the need to examine individual motivation and the social context in which individuals are embedded. (Sampson and Laub, 2003:171) Agency Yet another essential element that has been pointed out as key in achieving successful desistance is agency. (Burnett, 2004; Maruna, 2001; McNeill, 2006; Maguire et al, 2006; Maruna, 2001; Sampson and Laub, 2005 a). The theory of rational offence understands the fact that a criminal is able to make decisions based on his judgment of what is good or bad according to him in his crime life. Agency therefore works hand in hand with rational choice in the key decision making processes of a criminal. Agency is important since it assists in the overall process of making a rational choice. Furthermore, considering the often irrational patterns of offending of many criminals, and the many economic and social constraints offenders live under, rational choice theory alone cannot account for decisions to desist (Burnett, 2004; Sampson and Laub, 2005b). In their study of the Gluecks men Sampson and Laub (2005a) found that agency was a vital component in successful desistance. There is more to the structural support in the process of desistance, agency is required to offer the determination and persistence part of the equation. Agency determines the will to keep moving on and only those who are persistent will be able to manage the whole process. This will to desist and the internationalization of responsibility to overcome the challenges offenders face as they undergo desistance (Maruna, 2001), is very difficult to measure or predict and introduces a seemingly random component into life course turning points, making neat prediction inherently a difficult endeavor (Sampson and Laub, 2005a:177). Moreover it is a quintessential component in the study of desistance and persistence in a criminal career that has however not been fully researched to date. In their research of the life course theory of life Sampson and Laub assert that they have been seeking to explain the importance of the human agency as an aid in understanding desistance and other deviance forms (2003:177). Knifing offÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸ ones past, has come out to be a vital element to describe the ability to be able to accomplish a successful desistance for some individuals. To achieve this voluntarily, agency is necessary since it is one of the most difficult things to do and needs a lot of determination. It is a process that is more often accompanied by cutting all past contacts and establishing new ones for example geographical location and family. Most importantly though, Maruna et al (2006a) explained that it can as well involve internal change, or a change in the way the offender views themselves, their past, and their environment. This change in the individuals thinking is vital for the maintenance of long term desistance (Maruna, 2001; Sampson and Laub, 2003; 2005a; Maguire et al, 2006). Contemplation time was found to be a crucial moment that assisted in creating a turning point to desistance according to a study by Margaret Hughes (1998). And it was found that the opportunity to contemplate came as a result of a change in geographical location, imprisonment and residential treatment programmes. Hughes participants found their desire to change develop when they removed from the usual environments and being able to get ample time for self actualization. Social identity Researchers have tried to explain the phenomenon whereby some individual are able to sustain long term resistance while others do not, and it has been discovered that apart from agency, an individuals self identity change is similarly necessary. The chance of an ex-offender remaining crime free very much depends upon developing a new identity, and new values and beliefs that were not compatible with criminal offending (Burnett, 2004). For sure, a significant amount of work done in rehabilitating offenders and addicts, such as 12 Step and cognitive behavioral therapy, targets change in the individuals self-perception (Maruna, 2001). Each and every individual, whether an ex-offender, offender or normal citizen has a unique self identity through which their actions are guided upon, it is therefore as a result of this mechanisms that give people the different circumstances they exist in. Crucially, self-narratives provide a subjective account of the meanings that offenders place upon changes and turning points in their lives (McNiell, 2006).More often though not a fact; self narratives have been of assistance when people seek to explain their actions. Narratives very often change throughout the life course and understanding narratives, helps individuals realize the significance of past and present events in our lives (Sampson and Laub, 2005a). In a desistance study in Liverpool, Shadd Maruna investigated the different self narratives of two distinct groups of offenders whereby one persisted and the other desisted, to account for the changes in ex-offender identities (Maruna, 2001). He was able to find out that both the desisting and persistent criminals actually had more or less the same personality characteristics and were not as agreeable and conscious as the general population. Self-narratives are the only components that divided the two groups after thorough interviews. Active offenders had what Maruna described as a, condemnation scriptÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸ (2001), meaning, they saw life as an unfortunate abyss of hostility and uncertainty. They believed that circumstances had pushed them to their present situation and there was nothing they could do to change things and that the authority pushed them even further away. Desisting ex-offenders on the other hand had a positive outlook on their past and present and this is wha t assisted them to continue with their desistance process. It is this self-narrative that may be the tool needed for successful desistance. The self-narrative of the ex-offenders holds a version of the truth that is often quite different from historical truth (Maruna et al, 2007). This self narrative attaches a psychological component to the real facts of the past and creates a purpose and meaning in the life of an offender. This is what brings about the positive outlook and assists in achieving desistance. In a study focused completely on religious changes of rehabilitated offenders, Maruna et al discovered that their self-narrative was interestingly changed by their conversion experience (Maruna et al, 2006b). As a result the importance of this self narrative is once more highlighted as it helps an offender realize that the past can be changed and that the future has a hope even for those in long sentences. The offender is therefore able to have a new sense of identity, empowerment, purpose and forgiveness. The self narratives of most offenders in the desisting group have a common characteristic Maruna describes as, the redemption scriptÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸ (2001). This is basically the belief that an offender is a good person and that his or her past was merely as a result of circumstances of crime, recidivism and addiction. As a result of this, the offenders are able to endeavor to live new lives as they continue in with their desistance. They are then able to view themselves as role models with the necessary knowledge and experience to advice and educate the next generations, something Maruna calls, Making GoodÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¸. The major difference therefore between the desisting offenders and the persistent ones is the positive energy they surround themselves with. Confidence and self belief are as a result pointed out to be essential qualities as they guide an offender to understand that their past was a necessary component for them to be where they are at the present. This redemptive narrative helps them realize that they are not their past and that their future is what that matters. The acknowledgement of a supreme power beyond them has also been a contributing factor in the lives of these offenders. This is because they realize that their past might have been a plan to give them the positions they hold in the present, like being counselors and youth leaders. This moral superiority and change from the past, according to Maruna, is to make up for long stretches of lost life. During desistance according to Stephen Farrall some offenders undergo long periods of creating new social identities (2006:85). However much these offenders change, it is not forgotten that they acknowledge they are responsible for their criminal past. The idea that reformed criminals accept blame and feel shame for all of their crimes is not supported by research (Maruna, 2007). Successful offenders in desistance often admit to the guilt of their past but they however rationalize their actions and justify or blame themselves and accept that circumstances might have pushed them to criminality. Sometimes however they do not accept their actions and believe that the society pushed them to crime. Such a belief system would not encourage an ex-offender to accept responsibility for breaking laws that they perceived to be based on middle class values, and representative of a society that had neglected and mistreated them (Maruna, 2001). The Liverpool Desistance Study prove that a concurrent characteristic of the redemption script is an offender accepting to take control of changing his future however they do not acknowledge their past crimes. An internalization of full responsibility for their future, including the determination to overcome the many obstacles they will face, seems to be a defining feature of successful desisting ex-offenders. Maruna (2001:88) summarizes the themes of the desisting persons narrative as: an establishment of the core beliefs that characterize the persons true self an optimistic perception (some might say useful illusion) of personal control over ones destiny the desire to be productive and give something back to society, particularly the next generation Moffitt Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior: A Developmental Taxonomy Moffitts (1993) concept of dual taxonomy of offending similarly tries to explain the processes of desistance and persistence. Moffitt (ibid) outlined that offenders can be grouped into two; adolescent limiteds and life persisters. Moffitt proposes that the two groups are different and unique from each other in their offence and desistance processes, with the life course persisters having a different aetiology to the adolescent limited offenders. It is explained that they may be suffering neurological problems that affects their cognitive and learning skills. This is therefore evidenced by poor social skills even in the family leading to the various forms of anti social behavior and poor self control Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990). Early signs of antisocial behavior are a common characteristic of life course persisters (for example under-age drinking, premarital sex) as a result they are often excommunicated from their initial societal setting because of poor behavior, development and social bonds. Early signs of antisocial behaviors like these are normally a clear indication of a persistent criminal career in the future. This will be in connection to the age graded theory meaning there patterns of crime will be different and theirs will be a continuous cycle of events of affected marriages, work, education and relationships. Moffitt continues to explain that unlike life course persisters, adolescent limited offenders are not affected by any neurological problems and are able to successfully develop their social networks and cognitive skills. Therefore the causal factors for their criminality are connected to the gap between social development, age and desires. Age for example prevents them from engaging in adult behavior like sex or drinking. As a result of deviance from their desires, they tend to associate with the life course persister leading to the growth of their deviance. However, due to their developed social skills and academic success they are likely to be able to change more easily if they choose desistance. This is because they will be able to depend on their strong social bonds for support. Maruna (cited Laub Sampson 2001) explains that finding continuity in the criminality maybe be caused by methodology, by concentrating on dispositional traits to the exclusion of other personality traits. People can be able to change as Laub and Sampson write, even if their characteristic personality traits do not change radically with time. In order to understand desistance , researchers need to explore other aspects of personality such as offender self-perceptions or personal strategies Maruna (cited ibid). Narrative script There are two distinct narrative script types in the desistance literature that highlight how criminals really view themselves and their societal roles. For the persisters their script usually has a concurrent theme of condemnation. More often they blame external conditions like poor family relations and lack of education for their criminality. They generally have an external locus of control. In contrast the offenders who finally become successful in desistance have a redemption script. They are complete opposites of the latter and are fully responsible for their actions. As a result they make a positive choice to stop the crime by accepting rehabilitation programmes. They are described to have an internal locus of control. Factors that influence the particular narrative script that gets adopted by a criminal are majorly internal factors such as personality and genetics especially after rehabilitation. A higher chance of a redemptive script is noted to be as a result of intense rehabilitation. A probation workers relationship with an offender has also been linked to affect desistance. It is there important for these officers to have empathy skills that are crucial in the process of guiding an offender to desistance as they strive to be able to re-integrate back into the society. Relevance of desistance theory The desistance theory is relevant in a number of different applied and academic professions. The desistance theory to researchers may provide a foundation to be able to examine the different factors that contribute to the cessation of a criminal offence from a theoretical view. The desistance theory allows for a number of different crimes in history and their approaches like the Lombrosian biological positivism, to have consideration in the present society which has an evident difference in its ways of thinking. As a result criminology is more understood and its relationship with other disciplines like psychology, politics and social policy acknowledged. This will consequently allow the development of collaboration for a positive cause of reducing re offence rates. The desistance theory on a practical level has assisted the criminal justice system (CJS) to identify possible solutions to cases of reoffending of successful candidates of desistance through for example initiating community based sentences. This kind of programme is sure to gradually decrease the number of criminals in HM Prison Service institutions for short periods. Studies have shown that short-term sentences in prisons for example (those for less than six months) often lead to increased crime rates after release. This is well explained by the fact that these short-term prisoners to not undergo complete metamorphosis from not covering all the rehabilitation programs. Their exposure to the hard core criminals in the prisons who have been there for longer and have been experienced criminals also contributes to their overall change. In addition desistance theory assists in the continuous development of training programmes for the respective professionals responsible for working with ex-offenders in the community. For example the Probation Service (see Narrative script section, above). Controversies It is important for the general public to realize that desistance is achievable and takes time. Offenders should therefore not be viewed as bad people who cannot live with others even after rehabilitation programs. The public is therefore advised not to discriminate these groups of people in their society. Reintegration cases of offenders back into the society have always caused massive outrages by a large percentage of the public community. There are numerous related cases of such circumstances that have often been quite difficult and delicate to handle. For example in 2011, the case of the reintegration of Jason Owen who was initially convicted of playing some part, albeit minimal, in the widely reported death of Baby P (now known to be Peter Connelly) in 2007, and after serving his sentence for causing or allowing the death of Peter he was later released in 2011. The Sun newspaper immediately kicked off a campaign to find him. Readers were urged to write and report to the newspaper of any knowledge of his whereabouts. There was an article in the same newspaper that sent sentiments of outrage over the fact that the ex-convict had actually tried to find a job. This is a clear indication of how the effort of successful psychological research can be nullified by news reports in the popular media. This kind of outrageous reporting is especially a common characteristic of Tabloid newspapers. Their influence over the public is often impressive and they are as a result able to manipulate and affect the attitudes of the wider public towards their view of desistance and offenders. As a result of this, future recidivism is often developed gradually due to the ill-informed public. Newspapers then use this recidivism as proof of their initial correctness. Conclusion